Смена Караула в МВФ

Уход Стенли Фишера с поста первого заместителя исполнительного директора МВФ ознаменует конец целой эпохи. Действительно, все, кто стоял у руля этой организации во время мировых кризисов 1997-1998 (Фишер, исполнительный директор Мишель Камдесю, директор исследовательского отдела Майкл Муссе, а также два сотрудника Казначейства США, Роберт Рубин и Ларри Саммерс, управлявшие событиями из-за кулис) уже оставили свои посты или сделают это в ближайшем будущем.

За серьезными неудачами 1997 года в Индонезии, на Таиланде и в Корее последовали провалы 1998 года в России и Бразилии, когда попытки сохранить курс обмена валюты на завышенном уровне привели к потере миллиардов долларов налогоплательщиками этих стран. Такое поддержание стабильности обменного курса, однако, предоставило «толстосумам» необходимое время для того, чтобы выйти из сложившейся ситуации на еще более благоприятных условиях. И только девальвация позволила возобновить экономический рост в этих странах.

Доверие к МВФ уменьшалось с каждой ошибкой. И все же там не прекращали прорабатывать возможные варианты выхода из создавшегося положения, каждый из которых оказывался лишь незначительно лучше предыдущего. Иногда решение заключалось в предоставлении займа в качестве меры предосторожности (Бразилия) или в стратегии отказа в предоставлении финансовой помощи (Румыния), что в конечном итоге оказалось неприемлемым.

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