三大战略转型决定中国增长新格局

    发自北京 – 2012年对于中国注定是具有非凡意义的一年,十八大的召开不仅预示着中国政治格局出现新变化,三大战略转型决定未来中国增长的新格局。

 中国经济三十多年的增长奇迹已经让中国成为全球最受瞩目的重要目标。中国为什么能长期持续高增长,主要得益于三大红利:“要素红利、改革红利和全球化红利”,这三大红利支撑了中国黄金发展30年。首先是要素红利。过去30年改革期间,劳动力优势是催生东中国出口导向模式的主要原因,较低的劳动力价格和特定的经济制度导致产出分配趋于悬殊,衍生出高储蓄、低消费的结构特征。1978年GDP中间储蓄率占38%,2007年的时候占到了51%。经济的高速增长得益于低劳动力成本、高储蓄、高投资、高资本形成。其次是改革的制度红利。

其次是改革红利。按照标准的经济学理论,决定一国增长的不仅有劳动和资本、技术等要素,而且还有制度驱动的经济增长。而中国改革进程带来的就是制度化变革产生的强大溢出效应。改革开放30年来,中国成功实现了从高度集中的计划经济体制到充满活力的社会主义市场经济体制的伟大历史转折。从建立以家庭承包经营为基础的统分结合的农村双层经营体制开始,到以公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,到按劳分配为主体、多种分配方式并存的分配制度,再到在国家宏观调控下市场对资源配置发挥基础性作用的经济管理制度,可以说社会经济体制改革带来的政策性和体制性需求,为中国经济30年持续的高增长释放了巨大的活力空间。

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