Catalonia Election Junts Pel Si Matthias Oesterle/Zuma Wire

Las peligrosas ilusiones de Cataluña

BARCELONA – La próxima elección parlamentaria de Cataluña podría convertir la rica región noreste de España en el primer estado en separarse de la Unión Europea. Pero, cuanto más probable parece que los separatistas ganen una mayoría de escaños, más se hacen oír las voces opuestas a la secesión. El común de los catalanes comienza a darse cuenta de que pagaría la factura de la independencia mientras que los posibles beneficios se los apropiaría una élite intelectual cada vez más poderosa.

La radicalización de Cataluña parece desconcertante. En 1978, un abrumador 90,5 % de los catalanes (tres puntos por encima de la media nacional) votó a favor de la Constitución Española, la cual otorga a las regiones un régimen de autogobierno en áreas tan importantes como la policía, la educación, la salud, la radio y la televisión. Durante los últimos 37 años, Cataluña ha gozado de prosperidad económica sin precedentes. ¿Por qué los catalanes se muestran ahora dispuestos a romper con España y arriesgarlo todo?

La mayoría de los analistas creen que el separatismo se debe a factores económicos. Catalanes ricos, reacios a subvencionar a regiones españolas más pobres, se han aliado con radicales de izquierda que proponen el tipo de populismo nacionalista que la crisis económica y el malestar han impulsado en la periferia de la Unión Europea.

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