Catalonia Election Junts Pel Si Matthias Oesterle/Zuma Wire

Les illusions dangereuses de la Catalogne

BARCELONE – Les prochaines élections législatives en Catalogne pourraient bien transformer cette région riche du Nord-Est de l'Espagne en premier État sécessionniste de l'Union européenne. Mais à l'heure où se précise l'éventualité d'une victoire des séparatistes, les adversaires de la sécession se font entendre. Les Catalans ordinaires ont commencé à réaliser que ce sont eux qui paieront la facture de l'indépendance, alors que les avantages reviendront à une élite intellectuelle plus puissante.

La radicalisation de la Catalogne est déconcertante. En 1978, une majorité écrasante de 90,5% des Catalans (trois points de plus que la moyenne nationale) a voté en faveur de la Constitution espagnole, qui accorde à chaque région l'autonomie de ses fonctions principales, à savoir la police, l'éducation, la santé et la radiodiffusion. Au cours des 37 dernières années, la Catalogne a connu une prospérité économique sans précédent. Pourquoi les Catalans sont-ils maintenant prêts à rompre avec l'Espagne et à risquer le tout pour le tout ?

La plupart des analystes estiment que le séparatisme découle de facteurs économiques. Les Catalans riches, réticents à subventionner les régions plus pauvres de l'Espagne, se sont alliés aux radicaux de gauche en adoptant un populisme nationaliste alimenté par la crise économique et le marasme à la périphérie de l'UE.

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