Des dons en liquide pour l’Afrique

STOCKHOLM – L’Europe a fait l’ambitieuse promesse d’augmenter l’aide destinée à l’Afrique, et les défis auxquels ce continent est confronté appellent en effet à un engagement plus conséquent. Mais augmenter les dons à des pays qui en sont déjà dépendants demande des mécanismes plus clairs et un certain degré de prévisibilité budgétaire. Il faut quelque chose de nouveau, et les transferts de liquide directement aux pauvres peuvent être une alternative – mais uniquement en tant qu’élément d’une vision à plus long terme des systèmes sociaux des pays partenaires.

L’Union européenne s’est engagée, ainsi que ses États-membres, à augmenter les aides pour atteindre 0,56 % de son PIB d’ici 2010 et 0,7 % d’ici 2015 – en privilégiant l’Afrique. Les engagements pris par les pays membres du Comité d’aide au développement de l’OCDE multiplieront par deux l’aide officielle au développement destinée à l’Afrique entre 2004 et 2010 – c’est-à-dire, s’ils sont honorés.

Il est normal après tout de se demander si les pays donneurs respecteront leurs engagements et si les conditions dans les pays partenaires le leur permettront. Le doublement théorique de l’aide destinée à l’Afrique d’ici 2010 – avec la possibilité d’en faire encore plus après – représente une réelle opportunité de combattre la pauvreté. Il est donc absolument prioritaire de vaincre tous les obstacles qui pourraient empêcher l’application efficace de ces ressources supplémentaires.

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