Anne Ruthmann/Flickr

Жизнь в умном городе

ЛОНДОН – Mais oui! Каждый французский студент пятого класса знает, что Интернет был изобретен в Париже. Он существовал под названием Минитель (Minitel), сокращение от Médium interactif par numérisation d’information téléphonique:сеть почти девяти миллионов терминалов, которая позволяла частникам и организациям подключаться друг к другу и обмениваться информацией в реальном времени. Бум Минителя произошел в 1980-х и 1990-х годах, когда сеть начала разрабатывать разнообразные интернет-приложения, которые стали фундаментом глобального бума доткомов. Затем популярность сети начала медленно снижаться и в конце концов сеть полностью прекратила свою работу, а «настоящий» Интернет завладел миром.

Оба Минитель и Интернет были основаны для создания электронных информационных сетей. Их стратегии реализации, однако, отличались чрезмерно. Минитель руководился так называемой системой «сверху-вниз», и был запущен в последствии значительных усилий французской почтовой службы и национального оператора электросвязи. Он функционировал хорошо, но потенциал его роста и инноваций ограничивала его жесткая архитектура и законы собственности.

Однако, Интернет развивался образом снизу-вверx и таким путем ему удалось избежать ранние регуляторные призывы со стороны телекоммуникационных гигантов. В конечном счете, он стал той хаотичной, но революционной мировой инновацией, которую мы знаем сейчас (или «дар от Бога», как недавно выразился римский Папа Фрэнсис).

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