Capitalismo Vs. Democracia

VARSOVIA: La democracia está en camino en todo el mundo. Los regímenes totalitarios y autoritarios han sido erradicados. El resentimiento popular en contra de los que aún sobreviven va en aumento. Pero todavía es muy pronto para declarar una victoria, pues aunque el capitalismo ha alcanzado el triunfo, no podemos decir que lo mismo haya pasado con la democracia.

La conexión entre capitalismo y democracia está muy lejos de ser automática. Los regímenes represivos no suelen abdicar voluntariamente y es común que sean sometidos por los intereses económicos y financieros, tanto locales como extranjeros, sobre todo en los países en los que ciertos recursos, como el petróleo o los diamantes, están de por medio. En la actualidad, la mayor amenaza para la libertad es quizá una alianza impía entre el gobierno y los negocios, como sucede en Perú con Fujimori, en Zimbabwe con Mugabe, en Malasia con Mahatir y en la oligarquía rusa, lugares en los que el proceso democratizador suele aparecer de vez en vez pero los poderes del Estado son desviados para favorecer intereses privados.

El capitalismo genera riqueza, pero no se puede confiar en él para asegurar la libertad, la democracia y el gobierno de la ley. Los negocios son motivados por las ganancias y no están diseñados para salvaguardar los principios universales. Aun para preservar el mercado mismo es necesario tener algo más que interés per se: quienes participan en el mercado compiten para ganar y, si pudieran, eliminarían la competencia. De tal forma, la libertad, la democracia y el gobierno de la ley no pueden dejarse en manos de las fuerzas de mercado; necesitamos seguridad institucional.

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