La crise des Sudètes et celle de la Crimée

LONDRES – A l'heure où la Crimée vient de voter pour la sécession, le bouleversement en Ukraine crée une atmosphère de plus en plus tendue entre la Russie et le tandem des États-Unis et de l'Union européenne. Les dirigeants américains et européens nous rejouent-ils un remake russe de la crise des Sudètes de 1938 ?

Immédiatement après l'annexion de l'Autriche par l'Allemagne nazie, Adolf Hitler a tourné son attention vers les peuples allemands vivant dans la région des Sudètes en Tchécoslovaquie. Tout d'abord, il a exigé la cession de la région des Sudètes à l'Allemagne, en obtenant relativement facilement l'accord du Premier ministre britannique Neville Chamberlain et de son homologue français Édouard Daladier.

Hitler a ensuite immédiatement exigé d'y adjoindre l'occupation militaire allemande de la zone. Tenant la question pour « une querelle dans un pays lointain entre des gens dont nous ne savons rien » et à propos de laquelle il n'était pas utile de défier Hitler, Chamberlain et Daladier ont accepté l'occupation en signant l'Accord de Munich. Par cet acte, ils ont renforcé considérablement l'Allemagne et ont beaucoup enhardi Hitler, avec les conséquences catastrophiques que l'on sait.

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