Au-delà de l’inégalité entre les femmes et les hommes

Au printemps dernier, The Economist claironnait que les femmes sont la véritable force motrice de l’économie mondiale. Mais pour que l’économie européenne devienne plus compétitive et novatrice, leur arrivée massive sur le marché du travail ne suffit pas. Les femmes doivent occuper des postes plus élevés des secteurs public et privé si l’on veut récolter pleinement les fruits de leurs talents.

Les femmes d’Europe occidentale ont depuis longtemps comblé le fossé qui les séparait des hommes dans le domaine de l’éducation. Elles sont plus nombreuses qu’eux à l’université et les devancent notamment en mathématiques, en physique et en informatique. Pourtant, la réussite des étudiantes n’a pas fait augmenter la présence féminine aux postes à responsabilités. En Europe, le pourcentage de femmes à la direction des entreprises, des universités et du gouvernement reste inférieur à 10 %.

Si aux Etats-Unis un administrateur sur cinq est une femme, on compte en Europe continentale à peine une femme pour vingt hommes. La situation est légèrement meilleure dans l’enseignement supérieur : un professeur sur dix est une femme. Aux États-Unis, ce rapport est – encore une fois – plus favorable aux femmes, qui représentent plus de 20 % des professeurs d’université.

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