超越性别差距

去年春天,经济学家杂志曾经鼓吹“女性势力”就是世界经济的推动力量。但是,如果欧洲经济要想变得更为具有竞争力以及创新力,妇女仅仅大量进入劳动力市场还是不够的。为了充分利用妇女才能的果实,她们还必须在公营部门和私营部门居于最高的职务。

西欧的妇女长久以来已经消除了同她们的男性同龄人在教育上的差距。在大学里,女生不仅在人数上超过男生,而且她们也比男生成绩要好,最为显著的是在数学、物理以及信息科学方面。但是女生在学术上的成就并未增加妇女在最高职务上的存在。在欧洲,妇女在企业董事会中的比例在百分之十以下,在政府和学术界最高职务上也是一样。

在美国的企业官员中几乎每五个人就有一个人是女性,而在欧洲大陆,在公司董事会中妇女和男子的比例是一比二十或者更低。在科学界,这一局面稍微好一点。在欧洲,每十名教授中有一人是女性。在美国,这一比例再一次对妇女更为有利。在美国大学中,超过20%的教授是女性。

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