Para além de Fukushima

VIENA – A energia nuclear tornou-se mais segura desde o acidente devastador que ocorreu em Fukushima, no japão, há um ano atrás. Irá tornar-se ainda mais segura nos anos vindouros, desde que governos, operadores de centrais nucleares e entidades reguladoras não baixem a guarda.

O acidente em Fukushima foi consequência de um tremor de terra e de um tsunami de uma gravidade sem precedentes. Mas, como as autoridades japonesas já admitiram, as falhas humanas e organizacionais também tiveram um papel importante.

Por exemplo, a autoridade reguladora de energia nuclear japonesa não foi suficientemente independente e a supervisão da operadora das instalações, a TEPCO, foi fraca. Nas instalações de Fukushima, o fornecimento de energia de emergência, essencial para assegurar as operações vitais de segurança tais como o arrefecimento dos reactores e o arrefecimento das varas de combustível utilizadas, não se encontrava devidamente protegido. A formação para responder a situações de acidentes graves era inadequada. Houve uma falta de resposta integrada de emergência nas instalações e a nível nacional.

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