Méfiez-vous du protectionnisme envers les IDE

NEW YORK – Lors de leur dernière réunion en date, les partenaires du G8 se sont fermement prononcés contre toute mesure protectionniste dans le domaine des investissements directs à l’étranger (IDE). Ils répondaient à la demande du G20 formulée il y a quelques mois pour un moratoire à l’encontre de telles mesures. Tous deux avaient bien raison.

Selon la Conférence des Nations Unies pour le commerce et le développement (CNUCED), seul 6 % de tous les changements de régulation des IDE dans le monde entre 1992 et 2002 avaient pour objectif de rendre le climat moins accueillant pour les investisseurs. Ce chiffre est passé à 12 % en 2003-2004. Il a presque doublé à nouveau en 2005-2007, passant à 21 %. En Amérique latine par exemple, 60 % environ de tous les changements de régulation des IDE en 2007 n’étaient pas favorables aux investisseurs étrangers.

Dans l'ensemble, les pays qui ont effectué au moins une modification pour rendre le climat d’investissement moins accueillant en 2006-2007 représentait quelque 40 % du flux des IDE mondiaux durant cette période – chiffre impressionnant indiquant que quelque chose de louche se profile. Mais ces données font référence aux modifications officielles (lois et règlements). Aucune donnée n’est disponible quant aux lois et les règlements inchangés mais appliqués de manière plus restrictive, ce qui dresse par conséquent plus de barrières (officieuses) à l’entrée et aux opérations des sociétés étrangères.

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