Berlusconi, Haider y el Ascenso del Postfascismo

Tengo interés de declararme preocupado por la victoria electoral de Silvio Berlusconi en Italia. El gobierno de mi país, Hungría, ha sido –junto con el gobierno provincial de Bavaria (provincial en más sentidos que uno)– el mayor defensor extranjero del movimiento de Jörg Haider. Aquí, el gobierno de Viktor Orban está intentando, además de otras fechorías, suprimir el parlamento y penalizar a las autoridades locales de oposición, y está creando una ideología de estado en cofabulación con intelectuales lumpen.

El fenómeno que llamo postfascismo no es exclusivo de Europa Central, como lo demuestra Italia. El postfascismo encuentra un fácil nicho en el nuevo mundo del capitalismo global. Sin un Führer, sin el mandato de un solo partido o sin la SS, el postfascismo revierte la tendencia originada por la Ilustración a asimilar la ciudadanía como parte de la condición humana. Fue la Ilustración la que equiparó la ciudadanía con la dignidad humana y la extendió a todas las clases, profesiones, sexos, razas y credos. El estado representaba a todos; la ciudadanía se volvió universal, lo que significó una equidad virtual de la condición política.

El fascismo de la primera mitad del siglo XX planteó un decisivo ataque a esta dispensación. No era conservador, aún siendo contrarrevolucionario, pues no reestableció la aristocracia hereditaria. Fue capaz, sin embargo, de anular la noción de una ciudadanía universal en la que el estado-nación era considerado el representante o protector de todos aquellos que se encontraran al interior de sus fronteras. En el fascismo era el poder soberano el que juzgaba quién y quién no pertenecía a la comunidad cívica.

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