Tim Brinton

Equilibrer l’état et le marché

BERLIN – La crise financière et économique qui a éclaté en 2008 sera, avec le recul, analysée comme un moment transformatif car elle aura soulevé des questions essentielles sur la forme future de nos systèmes économiques. Ces questions ne sont pas tant sur la fin du capitalisme – comme certains le perçoivent ou le désirent – mais plutôt sur les différents sens que les différents pays ont donné au capitalisme.

Nous assistons aujourd’hui est une inversion des débats qui avaient lieu dans les années 80. A l’époque, Ronald Reagan avait plaisanté : « Les neuf mots les plus terrifiants de la langue anglaise sont : Je suis au gouvernement et c’est pour aider ! » Maintenant que les gouvernements ont dépensé des billions de dollars, d’euros, de yens, de livres pour stabiliser les marchés financiers et l’économie en général, ces mots semblent bien moins terrifiants.

En fait, la foi dans les marchés est entamée, tandis que la confiance dans le gouvernement et la régulation se renforce. Après des décennies de consensus sur le fait que l’état devrait établir les règles et laisser faire le secteur privé, l’état est de plus en plus considéré comme une force bénéfique qui devrait jouer un rôle actif dans l’économie.

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