Discipliner l’économie du partage

SINGAPOUR – La capacité croissante des individus à procéder à des échanges directs de biens, de services et de travail, via des plateformes en ligne, transforme actuellement la manière dont fonctionnent les économies modernes. Si nous entendons faire en sorte que l’avènement de l’ « économie du partage » s’opère de manière efficace et bénéficie à l’ensemble des acteurs, une certaine réglementation est toutefois nécessaire.

Les individus sont aujourd’hui en mesure de contourner nombre d’entreprises de services traditionnelles. Il leur est désormais possible de partager les transports en recourant à Uber, Lyft ou RelayRides ; d’obtenir un hébergement via Airbnb ; de confier leurs tâches ménagères via TaskRabbit, Fiverr ou Mechanical Turk ; ainsi que de se faire livrer leurs courses grâce à Favor et Instacart. De même, un certain nombre de plateformes de financement communautaire, telles que Kickstarter et Lending Club, permettent aux start-ups d’obtenir des fonds, des prêts ou des investissements de la part du grand public, plutôt que de recourir à un intermédiaire financier.

En supprimant les intermédiaires, ces plateformes en ligne permettent d’autonomiser les individus, de réduire les frais de transaction, et de générer une économie plus inclusive. Leur évolution revêt toutefois un manque cruel de transparence. Nombre de ces services vont en effet avoir besoin d’une réglementation minutieuse s’ils entendent prospérer – comme l’ont démontré plusieurs manifestations et décisions de justice à l’encontre d’Uber en Europe.

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