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自动化、生产率和增长

柏林—如果一家企业投资于自动化,那么这家企业的劳动力——尽管可能有所缩减——就会更具生产力,这似乎是不言自明的。那么,为何统计数据显示并非如此?

在发达经济体,大量行业有资金也愿意投资于自动化,但生产率增长(用每员工或每工时所产生的增加值衡量)已经至少低迷了15年。此外,自2008年全球金融危机以来,这些国家的总体经济增长也十分疲软——平均不超过4%。

一个解释是发达经济体背负了过多的债务,需要去杠杆,这导致了公共部门投资不足,也抑制了消费和私人投资。但去杠杆只是暂时的过程,而不会永远制约增长。从长期看,总体经济增长取决于劳动力及其生产率的增长。

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