La educación en la segunda era de las máquinas

MÚNICH – La inteligencia artificial, en tiempos confinada en la esfera de la ciencia ficción, está cambiando nuestras vidas. Los coches se están conduciendo a sí mismos. Se están programando los aviones no tripulados para la entrega de paquetes. Las computadoras están aprendiendo a diagnosticar enfermedades. En un libro reciente, los economistas Erik Brynjolfsson y Andrew McAfee consideran que esos avances recientes son ejemplos del comienzo de lo que llaman “la segunda era de las máquinas”.

El propio nombre –la primera era de las máquinas fue la Revolución Industrial– indica un cambio transcendental y, si hemos de creer las predicciones, esos avances tecnológicos podrían tener consecuencias profundas para nuestra forma de vida.

Un pronóstico común es el de que, a medida que cada vez más robots avanzados substituyen a trabajadores, el costo de la mano de obra resultará menos importante y la manufactura volverá a los países ricos. Otro es el de que unas máquinas cada vez más inteligentes reducirán la demanda de aptitudes avanzadas y, en consecuencia, la ventaja económíca de contar con dichas aptitudes disminuirá.

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