L'éducation au deuxième âge du machinisme

MUNICH – L'intelligence artificielle, jadis cantonnée au domaine de la science-fiction, est en train de changer nos vies. Les automobiles se conduisent toutes seules. Les drones sont programmés pour livrer des colis. Les ordinateurs apprennent à diagnostiquer les maladies. Dans un livre récent, les économistes Erik Brynjolfsson et Andrew McAfee décrivent ces progrès récents comme des exemples du début de ce qu'ils appellent le « deuxième âge du machinisme ».

Le nom lui-même (le premier âge du machinisme correspondait à la Révolution industrielle) suggère un changement d'époque. Et en effet, s'il faut se fier aux prédictions, ces avancées technologiques pourraient avoir des répercussions profondes sur notre mode de vie.

Une prévision commune est que des robots de plus en plus perfectionnés vont remplacer la main-d'œuvre humaine, que le coût du travail sera moins important et que l'industrie va opérer son retour vers les pays riches. Une autre prévision est que des machines de plus en plus intelligentes vont permettre de réduire la demande en compétences de pointe et que l'avantage économique de disposer de ces compétences va corrélativement diminuer.

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