Bras ou alliés ?

RIGA – Cela ne devrait surprendre personne que beaucoup en Lettonie jugent profondément inquiétante la vente par la France de navires de guerre entièrement équipés à la Russie. D’autres états membres de l’Union Européenne semblent se tourner de plus en plus vers la Russie en tant que marché potentiel pour l’équipement militaire. Mais est-il est sage pour les membres de l’UE et de l’OTAN de développer la capacité des non-alliés à projeter leur puissance militaire ?  La Russie n’a-t-elle pas, il y a deux ans à peine, envahi la Géorgie, un pays que l’OTAN avait déclaré futur membre potentiel, dont elle continue d’occuper une partie du territoire ?

La position commune du Conseil de l’UE sur les exportations d’armes engage tous les états de l’UE. Bien sûr, la compétence et la responsabilité des contrôles et des licences d’exportations d’armes reposent sur les états membres, pas sur les institutions de l’UE. Selon l’Arrangement de Wassenaar, une décision d’exportation est en effet de la seule responsabilité de chaque état participant.

L’application de la position commune de l’UE sur les exportations d’armes a entrainé plus d’échanges d’informations, une plus grande transparence et des consultations plus étroites. Elle a aussi permis d’harmoniser les arrangements et les procédures de contrôle des exportations. Mais il y a des limites évidentes à ce qui peut être réalisé. Les consultations sont actuellement d’ordre bilatéral, sans qu’aucune règle ne régisse leurs modalités – et sans obligation de parvenir à un accord final sur les décisions d’exportation d’armes.

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