¿Están las multinacionales estadounidenses abandonando el país?

BERKELEY - En una reciente conferencia en Washington, DC, el ex secretario del Tesoro, Larry Summers, señaló que las autoridades de Estados Unidos deberían centrarse en las actividades productivas que tienen lugar en el país y dan empleo a trabajadores estadounidenses, no en las corporaciones que están registradas legalmente en los EE.UU. pero llevan a cabo su producción en otros países. Citó estudios realizados por el ex Secretario del Trabajo Robert Reich, quien hace más de 20 años advirtió que, a medida que las multinacionales estadounidenses trasladaban el empleo y la producción al extranjero, sus intereses comenzarían a divergir de los intereses económicos del país.

Es fácil estar de acuerdo con Summers y Reich en que la política económica nacional debe centrarse en la competitividad estadounidense, no en el bienestar de empresas particulares. Sin embargo, es engañosa su tajante distinción entre los intereses económicos del país y los de las empresas multinacionales de Estados Unidos.

En 2009, el último año del que hay disponibles datos completos, sólo había 2.226 multinacionales estadounidenses de un total de aproximadamente 30 millones de empresas establecidas en los EE.UU.. Las multinacionales de Estados Unidos tienden a ser grandes, con actividades intensivas de investigación, comercio y uso del capital, y son responsables de una parte sustancial y desproporcionada de la actividad económica del país.

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