flowers growing near mosque Poritsky via Flickr

Hospodářský růst po Arabském jaru

CAMBRIDGE – Pět let po propuknutí povstání Arabského jara dosáhl Egypt, Jordánsko, Maroko a Tunisko přiměřené úrovně politické stability. Hospodářský růst ovšem zůstává vlažný a Mezinárodní měnový fond očekává, že tempo expanze letos nepřekročí 1,5 % na hlavu. Vzhledem ke značnému potenciálu dohánět svět a mladým pracovním silám se člověk musí ptát, proč tomu tak je.

Jedno samozřejmé vysvětlení tkví v tom, že navzdory významnému pokroku při budování stabilní vlády, tyto země nadále podléhají politickým rizikům, jichž se soukromí investoři bojí. Už před povstáními roku 2011 ale byly soukromé investice skrovné a tato rizika vysoká. Musí za tím být něco víc.

Nahlédnout do problému nám dávají nedávné hospodářské dějiny těchto zemí. Na Blízkém východě a v severní Africe jsou tržní ekonomiky relativně nové, vznikly až po skončení 80. let minulého století, kdy se pod vahou svých nehospodárností (a z nich plynoucího zadlužení) zhroutil model státem řízeného hospodářského růstu. Na rozdíl od Latinské Ameriky a východní Evropy však arabské země liberalizovaly ekonomiky, aniž by liberalizovaly politiku. U moci se pevně drželi autokraté, podporovaní západními mocnostmi.

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