Antisemitismus před soudem

Když brazilský Nejvyšší soud rozhodoval v kauze Sigfrieda Ellwangera - vydavatele, spisovatele a nechvalně proslulého sympatizanta nacismu -, vstoupil na nebezpečné území, kde se střetává svoboda projevu a snahy o potlačení rasismu. Ellwanger celá léta vydával antisemitské knihy, například Protokoly sionských mudrců, a dále knihy popírající holocaust, například svou vlastní knihu Židovský nebo německý holocaust: co se skrývá za lží století. Osmi hlasy ku třem soud potvrdil rozsudek za obvinění z rasismu.

Obludnost holocaustu měla samozřejmě antisemitismus nadobro vymýtit. Je ostudné, že se tak nestalo. Na mnoha místech nenávist vůči Židům vzkvétá. Jinde - mimo jiné v Evropě a ve Spojených státech - antisemitismus přežívá uvnitř frakce neonacistů a renegátů, jako je Ellwanger, ale též - mnohem šířeji - v jemnějších formách předsudků.

Avšak trestat někoho za to, že je antisemita a rasistický štváč, vyvolává znepokojivé otázky, k nimž se různé země staví různě. Jistě, všechny státy jistým způsobem svobodu slova omezují. Jak říká proslavený výrok Olivera Wendella Holmese z rozhodnutí Nejvyššího soudu USA z roku 1919: „Ani ta nepřísnější ochrana svobody projevu by neochránila toho, kdo v zaplněném divadle nepravdivě zvolá, že hoří, a vyvolá tím paniku."

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