La ceguera estratégica de EE.UU.

MADRID – Las recriminaciones sobre las actividades de espionaje de EE.UU., desencadenadas tras las revelaciones del ex consultor de la Agencia Nacional de Seguridad americana, Edward J. Snowden, han llegado a su punto álgido. Abundan las preguntas sobre lo que el presidente Barack Obama sabía y cuándo lo supo, la legitimidad de las escuchas de las conversaciones amistosas de líderes extranjeros, el futuro de las relaciones transatlánticas, e incluso sobre el significado del término "aliado".

Pero la tormenta actual, al igual que otras recientes crisis diplomáticas de EE.UU., refleja un problema más profundo: la falta de visión estratégica de la política exterior americana. Mientras EE.UU. no establezca un marco omnicomprensivo de finalidad clara a través del cual relacionarse con el mundo, un enfoque reactivo es inevitable e incidentes de alta intensidad, como los acaecidos recientemente, seguirán siendo la norma.

Durante más de 40 años, la política de contención de la influencia soviética desarrollada durante la Guerra Fría proporcionó a América un marco estratégico. Pese a que las distintas administraciones estadounidenses debatieron y variaron sus tácticas, el enfoque general se mantuvo coherente, ampliamente apoyado por republicanos y demócratas por igual. Una estrategia de seguridad nacional global no evitó problemas ni tampoco desastres en países que van desde Vietnam a Nicaragua; pero, en perspectiva, la estrategia anticomunista estableció un orden y una organización en la política exterior de EE.UU. ausentes en la actualidad.

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