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Rusia y la filosofía de la Ruta de la Seda

MADRID – La degradación de la situación en Ucrania ha puesto de manifiesto tres grandes retos de la política exterior de la Comunidad Atlántica: el peligro de aislar a Rusia, la prevención de China de involucrarse internacionalmente, y la falta de ideas auténticamente innovadoras. Para superarlos, será necesario un esfuerzo concertado que mejore la cooperación y fomente la confianza entre países con sistemas políticos e intereses nacionales dispares. El “Cinturón Económico de la Ruta de la Seda” del presidente chino Xi Jinping puede contribuir a ese esfuerzo.

La respuesta de Europa y de EEUU a la crisis en Ucrania ha fallado en dos aspectos fundamentales. En primer lugar, por anémica, ha proyectado una imagen de debilidad que socava nuestra capacidad para lograr revertir la anexión rusa de Crimea, tácitamente aceptada, o detener sus agresiones en el Este de Ucrania. Además, las sanciones selectivas y los desaires diplomáticos han contribuido al aislamiento internacional de Rusia, socavando cualquier relación funcional de futuro. Y, aunque es fundamental para la Comunidad Atlántica mantenerse firme en sus principios -incluso mediante la imposición de sanciones punzantes- es preciso mantener áreas de pragmatismo. Claramente, una Rusia débil y aislada es mucho más peligrosa que una Rusia fuerte e integrada en la comunidad internacional. Y, sin embargo, no cabe duda de que la relación con Rusia está rota y de que la confianza mutua ha alcanzado su punto más bajo desde el colapso de la Unión Soviética.

En este contexto, traer a Rusia de vuelta al redil internacional requerirá de la participación de China. Pero, para China, la cuestión de Ucrania es compleja, no solo por su interés en fomentar vínculos más estrechos con Rusia sino, en cierta medida, por los paralelismos con sus propias acciones en lugares como el Tíbet. Habida cuenta de lo anterior, y la reticencia general de China a asumir una posición de liderazgo mundial, una participación decidida de Pekín sólo se logrará a través de iniciativas específicas con objetivos concretos.

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