Une autre politique d'investissement en Afghanistan

NEW-YORK – La sécurité de l'Afghanistan et sa situation politique restent marquées par l'incertitude due au retrait des troupes des USA et de l'OTAN, l'approche de l'élection présidentielle et l'impasse dans laquelle se trouvent les négociations avec les talibans. Reconnaissant que l'insécurité économique prolongée exacerbe dangereusement cet état de fait, le gouvernement a annoncé un nouveau plan de stimulation économique destiné à attirer les investissements directs étrangers.

Ce plan comporte la vente de terre aux hommes d'affaires pour un prix dérisoire, des exemptions fiscales jusqu'à 7 ans pour les propriétaires d'usine et des prêts à faible taux sur une période pouvant aller jusqu'à 10 ans pour les agriculteurs. Ces avantages destinés à l'élite locale et aux investisseurs étrangers dans le but d'arrêter ou même d'inverser le mouvement de fuite des capitaux ne changeront pas grand chose : ce sont des mesures fragmentaires qui ne permettront pas de résoudre les problèmes économiques fondamentaux de l'Afghanistan.

Au début de la transition d'après-guerre, les investissements directs étrangers ont augmenté rapidement, passant entre 2002 et 2005 de 1,2% à un pic de 4,3% du PIB. La majorité de ces capitaux sont allés à la construction et au secteur des services, les principaux moteurs de croissance, et visait à satisfaire à la demande internationale, qu'elle soit civile ou militaire.

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