Una

AMÁN – Durante el período post-colonial, los países árabes fracasaron constantemente a la hora de producir un sistema de gobierno eficiente -y mucho menos democrático-. Ahora, después de medio siglo de alternancia entre dictaduras militares o reales y regímenes islamistas militantes, muchos árabes vuelven a buscar una "tercera vía" -un camino hacia una forma creíble de democracia representativa-. Ahora bien, ¿sus esfuerzos resultarán tan inútiles hoy como lo han sido en el pasado?

Oriente Medio -llamado así por su ubicación geográfica entre Europa y Asia oriental- estuvo gobernado por los otomanos durante 400 años antes de que las potencias aliadas, después de derrotar a los otomanos en la Primera Guerra Mundial, dividieron la región en unidades políticas distintas que, bajo el Acuerdo Sykes-Picot, cayeron dentro de las esferas de influencia diseñadas por el Reino Unido y Francia. Pero, en respuesta a estas nuevas divisiones, se estaba gestando un despertar árabe -forjado por un panarabismo y el respaldo de Palestina.

Jóvenes y carismáticos gobernantes militares devenidos dictadores, como Gamal Abdel Nasser de Egipto, Saddam Hussein de Irak, Muammar Khadafi de Libia, Ali Abdullah Saleh de Yemen y Hafez al-Assad de Siria utilizaron estas causas populares para ganarse el apoyo de la población. Pero el hecho de no poder ofrecerles una vida mejor a sus ciudadanos, sumado al descrédito de las ideologías de izquierda luego del colapso de la Unión Soviética, alimentaron el ascenso de un movimiento rival: el Islam político.

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