Tout un programme pour l’Amérique latine

Ces trois dernières années, l’Amérique latine a connu une explosion économique sans précédent. La croissance est forte, l’inflation est sous contrôle et les réserves internationales sont en constante augmentation. La période 2004-2006 est la plus prospère des économies d’Amérique latine depuis les années soixante.

Ces trois années en or sont dues en grande partie à un environnement international exceptionnellement favorable. Les prix d’exportation des matières premières atteignent des records, les liquidités mondiales sont largement suffisantes et les taux d’intérêt internationaux sont faibles.

Cependant, malgré ces bonnes nouvelles, la politique du continent est sens dessus dessous et pose la question de savoir si le succès économique va durer. De plus en plus de pays d’Amérique latine élisent des présidents de gauche, critiques à l’égard des réformes de marché et de la mondialisation. La Colombie est récemment allée à contre-courant de cette tendance : le candidat gauchiste aux élections présidentielles du Mexique, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, a été battu de justesse. Les électeurs ont toutefois catapulté vers le pouvoir des hommes politiques de gauche en Argentine, en Bolivie, au Brésil, au Chili, au Costa Rica, en Équateur, au Pérou, au Venezuela et en Uruguay, alors même que López a toujours la capacité – et probablement la volonté – de mobiliser ses partisans.

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