Guerras de Drones

BRUXELAS – “Um dia organizarão uma guerra e ninguém aparecerá,” escrevia esperançosamente o poeta Americano Carl Sandburg em 1936. Hoje o seu sentimento parece mais adequado que nunca, mas não porque a humanidade se tornou pacifista. Pelo contrário, as guerras cada vez mais se travam remotamente, com drones – ou veículos aéreos não tripulados (VANT) – que cometem assassinatos.

Com o Presidente Barack Obama, o número de ataques de drones levados a cabo pelos Estados Unidos disparou, com mais de 300 ataques de VANT registados só no Paquistão. Em Março de 2011, a Força Aérea dos EUA treinou pela primeira vez mais pilotos para drones do que para qualquer outra função.

Isto levanta questões éticas sérias. Não implicando o risco de vida do pessoal militar, os VANTs tornam mais fácil matar, e fundamentar operações bélicas ao público interno. Além disso, a reticência do ser humano em matar está inversamente relacionada com a distância entre atacante e alvo. No caso de um piloto que controle drones sobre o Iémen, operando um joystick no Nevada, o limiar para carregar no gatilho é perigosamente reduzido. Matar transforma-se numa tarefa laboral, que será talvez seguida de bowling, ou de um calmo jantar em casa.

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