Margaret Scott

La primera crisis de la deuda de los Estados Unidos

CAMBRIDGE – El occidente está atrapado en una crisis de la deuda. Estados Unidos, como todos saben, el 2 de agosto se acercó de manera peligrosa a una moratoria, y Standard & Poors el 5 de agosto clasificó la deuda de EE.UU. en una categoría inferior a la AAA. En Europa, el presidente saliente del Banco Central Europeo recomienda tener una autoridad fiscal más centralizada en Europa con el fin de hacer frente a probables moratorias de uno o más de los siguientes países, Grecia, Portugal y España.

Tanto Europa como Estados Unidos puede aprender una lección escondida en la historia estadounidense, ya que, perdido en la bruma de la veneración patriótica de los fundadores de Estados Unidos se encuentra el hecho de que ellos crearon un nuevo país durante – y en gran parte debido a – una paralizante crisis de la deuda. Se tiene la esperanza de que la actual crisis llegue a convertirse en un similar momento de creatividad política.

En el año 1783, después de la independencia de Gran Bretaña, los estados de Estados Unidos se negaron a pagar sus deudas de la guerra de independencia. Algunos no podían, otros no querían. El país en su conjunto funcionaba como una confederación poco compacta, que, al igual que la Unión Europea en la actualizad, carecía de potestad tributaria como también de otras potestades. No podía resolver sus problemas financieros, y, finalmente dichos problemas – en gran parte problemas de moratorias recurrentes – se catalizaron en la convención de Filadelfia para crear un nuevo Estados Unidos.

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