Amerika konfrontuje starou a novou Evropu

Loňská nedůtklivá poznámka amerického ministra obrany Donalda Rumsfelda o „staré a nové Evropě" byla správná, byť z nesprávných důvodů. Rumsfeld měl na mysli evropské rozpory, ale v květnu vstoupilo do Evropské unie dalších deset států. Rozšířená Evropa tak skutečně představuje Evropu novou. Mělo by to Ameriku znervózňovat?

Padesát čtyři let po vyhlášení Schumanova plánu, který začal provazovat francouzskou a německou ekonomiku, čítá EU celkem 25 zemí, v nichž žije více obyvatel než ve Spojených státech. Osm z nových členských zemí představuje někdejší komunistické státy, které byly téměř po půlstoletí uzamčeny za železnou oponou. Jejich přimykání se k unii svědčí o přitažlivosti - „měkké síle" - myšlenky evropského sjednocení.

Tato nová Evropa se samozřejmě potýká s mnoha problémy. Příjem nových členů na hlavu činí necelou polovinu průměru v patnácti dosavadních členských zemích. Panují obavy z přílivu levné pracovní síly. Průměrný růst HDP v nových členských zemích nicméně dvojnásobně přesahuje růst v původních členských státech, což může představovat vítaný stimul pro stagnující pracovní trhy a liknavé ekonomiky.

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