Estados Unidos y los bienes públicos globales

Actualmente, Estados Unidos está paralizado por el problema que él mismo se ha creado en Irak, pero los candidatos presidenciales también están empezando a preguntar qué principios deberían guiar la política exterior norteamericana después de Irak. En mi opinión, concentrarse en los bienes públicos globales –cosas que todos pueden consumir sin afectar la disponibilidad de estos bienes para los demás- podría ayudar a Estados Unidos a reconciliar su poder preponderante con los intereses de los otros.

Por supuesto, los bienes públicos puros son escasos. La mayoría sólo aborda parcialmente la causa ideal del aire limpio, donde ninguno puede ser excluido y todos pueden beneficiarse simultáneamente. Combatir el cambio climático global probablemente sea la causa actual más dramática.

Si el mayor beneficiario de un bien público (como Estados Unidos) no toma la delantera y le dedica recursos desproporcionados a esta situación, es improbable que puedan hacerlo los beneficiarios más pequeños, debido a las dificultades que implica organizar una acción colectiva cuando hay involucradas cifras importantes. Si bien esta responsabilidad suele permitir que otros se vuelvan “gorrones”, la alternativa es nada para nadie.

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