Amerika a globální veřejné statky

Spojené státy jsou momentálně ochromeny problémem, který si natropily v Iráku, ale prezidentští kandidáti si začínají klást také otázku, jakými principy by se měla řídit americká zahraniční politika po Iráku. Podle mého názoru by koncentrace na globální veřejné statky – tedy věci, které může spotřebovávat každý, aniž tím sníží jejich dostupnost pro ostatní – mohla Americe pomoci uvést její převládající moc do souladu se zájmy druhých.

Čisté veřejné statky jsou samozřejmě vzácné. Většina se jich jen částečně blíží ideálnímu případu čistého vzduchu, který nelze nikomu odepírat a zároveň z něj mohou mít prospěch všichni současně. Nejdramatičtějším současným případem je pravděpodobně boj s globálními klimatickými změnami.

Pokud se největší příjemce nějakého veřejného statku (jako jsou USA) nepostaví do čela a nevynaloží nepoměrně vysoké prostředky na jeho obstarání, pak se menším příjemcům pravděpodobně nepodaří tento statek produkovat kvůli potížím s organizací kolektivní činnosti při velkém počtu účastníků. Tato zodpovědnost sice často umožňuje jiným, aby se jen „vezli“, avšak druhou možností je, že se nesveze nikdo.

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