Всё в один налог и один налог на всё?

КЭМБРИДЖ. Когда наступит следующий всеобъемлющий глобальный финансовый кризис, пусть не говорят, что Международный Валютный Фонд ничего не пытался сделать, чтобы предотвратить его. Недавно МВФ предложил новый глобальный налог для финансовых институтов, в какой-то мере пропорциональный их размерам, а также налог на прибыль банков и бонусы.

Предложение Фонда было встречено финансовой индустрией с предсказуемым презрением и насмешками. Более интересными и знаменательными стали смешанные отзывы президентов и министров финансов стран Большой двадцатки. Правительства стран, что ближе к эпицентру недавнего финансового кризиса, особенно Соединённых Штатов и Соединённого Королевства, отнеслись к идее с нескрываемым энтузиазмом, особенно к налогу на размер. В конце концов, они хотят ввести его в любом случае. Страны, что не испытали недавнего крушения банков, такие как Канада, Австралия, Китай, Бразилия и Индия, энтузиазма не проявили. Зачем им менять систему, которая оказалась такой жизнеспособной?

Легко критиковать детали плана МВФ. Но диагноз проблемы, сделанный МВФ на основе видения целостной картины, во многом прав. Финансовые системы раздуты безусловными гарантиями налогоплательщиков, которые позволяют банкам, в особенности крупным, занимать деньги под процентные ставки, не вполне отражающие те риски, на которые они идут в погоне за сверхприбылью. Поскольку эти риски потом перекладываются на плечи налогоплательщиков, то обложение налогами финансовых компаний пропорционально их займам – простой способ обеспечить справедливость.

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