Después de los talibanes

''Estado fracasado'' es un término que se aplica con frecuencia a Afganistán y generalmente se estima que es la causa de que los terroristas ganaran tanta influencia ahí. Sin embargo, un país no fracasa por su propia voluntad, ni se ve debilitado por causas desconocidas. Un país fracasa, cuando fracasa, por razones definidas e identificables. Estas se deben abordar si se quiere que Afganistán reviva.

Veinte años de invasiones, guerras civiles y sequías han dejado a las instituciones afganas en ruinas. Millones de afganos se amontonan en campamentos de refugiados o han sido desplazados de sus hogares. Las minas terrestres contaminan el campo. Hay millones de pobres y enfermos. Muchos viven a niveles de inanición. Por estas y muchas otras razones, la reanimación de la economía de Afganistán va a requerir no sólo de la reconstrucción económica sino de un esfuerzo para reinventar las instituciones políticas y culturales del país. No obstante, un esfuerzo de esa magnitud estará condenado al fracaso si los vecinos de Afganistán intervienen en formas que promuevan un nuevo desorden económico.

Afganistán no es un lugar para las soluciones fáciles. No se puede reconstruir el país a bajo costo. Se debe olvidar cualquier pensamiento de que la coalición en contra del terrorismo podrá salir rápidamente (como lo hizo el Occidente cuando abandonó a Afganistán a sus suerte despúes del retiro de los soviéticos hace diez años). El Occidente debe seguir al lado de Afganistán hasta que se afirme su reconstrucción. De otra manera, corre el riesgo del caos y la violencia renovada, pero esta vez, en una región mas desestabilizada, como lo demuestran los problemas actuales de Pakistán.

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