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Après le Brexit, l’Afrique a ses chances

LONDRES – Le monde entier, après que les électeurs britanniques ont décidé de quitter l’Union européenne, a ressenti l’onde de choc, et l’Afrique ne fait pas exception, en raison, notamment, des liens historiques étroits qui l’unissent à de nombreux États membres de l’UE. Experts et pouvoirs publics ont été prompts à déplorer ce nouveau nuage d’incertitudes obscurcissant l’horizon économique africain, ne laissant que trop prévoir des lendemains difficiles.

La Namibie fut la seule à minimiser les conséquences du Brexit, probablement parce que ses exportations vers l’UE ont significativement diminué au cours des dernières années. Mais le reste de l’Afrique a raison de prendre le problème au sérieux, pour ce qui concerne, du moins, les perspectives à court terme.

Malgré tout, sur le long terme, l’Afrique devrait se montrer plus optimiste. L’angoisse qui a suivi le Brexit traduit surtout une conception traditionnelle sans grand rapport avec les véritables objectifs économiques tant des pays africains que du Royaume-Uni. Les cris d’alarme lancés à une Afrique exportatrice de matières premières vers l’Europe et le Royaume-Uni reposent sur l’hypothèse implicite que la coopération entre les deux continents est vouée, par essence, à se limiter au commerce des produits de base.

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