Wealthy man and woman in fashionable urban area.

El fascismo de los ricos

BERLÍN – A ambos lados del Atlántico se está produciendo un alarmante giro político hacia la derecha, vinculado con la fuerza creciente de figuras y partidos políticos abiertamente chauvinistas: Donald Trump en Estados Unidos, Marine Le Pen en Francia. Lista a la que se podrían añadir otros nombres: el primer ministro de Hungría, Viktor Orbán, defensor de la “democracia no liberal”, o Jarosław Kaczyński y su semiautoritario partido Ley y Justicia, que ahora gobierna Polonia.

El ascenso de partidos políticos nacionalistas y xenófobos en muchos países miembros de la Unión Europea viene de mucho antes de la llegada de los primeros contingentes numerosos de refugiados sirios. Una lista acotada incluiría a Geert Wilders en los Países Bajos, el Vlaams Blok (y su actual sucesor, el Vlaams Belang) en Bélgica, el Partido de la Libertad de Austria, los Demócratas de Suecia, los Verdaderos Finlandeses y el Partido Popular Danés.

Aunque los motivos del exitoso ascenso de estos partidos son muy distintos en cada país, sus posiciones básicas son similares. Todos ellos son furiosamente contrarios al “sistema”, el “establishment político” y la UE. Para peor, no solo son xenófobos (y en particular, islamófobos), sino que también adoptan más o menos descaradamente una definición étnica de la nación. La comunidad política no es producto del compromiso de sus ciudadanos con un orden constitucional y jurídico compartido, sino que, como en los años treinta, la pertenencia a la nación deriva de compartir una ascendencia y una religión.

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