Všeobecná revoluce

NEW YORK – Nejvýznamnějším přínosem Všeobecné deklarace lidských práv, kterou před 60 lety – 10. prosince 1948 – schválilo Valné shromáždění Organizace spojených národů, bylo vyslovení silné myšlenky: totiž že práva jsou všeobecná. Že nezávisejí na členství v určité konkrétní komunitě nebo na občanství určitého státu a že se neodvozují ze společenské smlouvy.

Vzhledem ke svému všeobecnému charakteru jde spíše o atributy všech lidských bytostí. Jsou součástí toho, co nás dělá lidskými. Každý z nás může práva požívat. Ti, kdo drží moc, ji mohou uplatňovat jen omezeným způsobem. A omezení jsou dána právě těmito právy.

Koncept všeobecných práv lze samozřejmě zpětně vysledovat přinejmenším do Anglie sedmnáctého století a jejích myšlenek o přírodních zákonech. Částečně ho přijala za svůj i francouzská Deklarace práv z roku 1789 a v ještě větší míře také Thomas Jefferson, který ve stejné době hovořil o „nezcizitelných právech“. Koncept formoval rovněž myšlení lidí v Anglii, kteří ve druhé polovině osmnáctého století vedli boj proti otroctví, a stali se tak prvním hnutím za lidská práva v dějinách.

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