Paul Lachine

¿Un momento rooseveltiano para los megabancos de los Estados Unidos?

WASHINGTON,  D. C. – Hace algo más de cien años, los Estados Unidos estaban a la cabeza del mundo en relación con la necesidad de replantear el funcionamiento de las grandes empresas y de decidir cuándo se debía limitar su poder. Retrospectivamente, la legislación que constituyó un gran avance al respecto –y no sólo para los Estados Unidos, sino internacionalmente– fue la Ley Sherman Antimonopolio de 1890.

El proyecto de ley Dodd-Frank de reforma financiera, que está a punto de aprobar el Senado de los EE.UU., hace algo similar –y que hacía falta desde hacía mucho– para la banca.

Antes de 1890, estaba generalizada la opinión de que las grandes empresas eran más eficientes y en general más modernas que las pequeñas. La mayoría de las personas veían la consolidación de las empresas pequeñas en un número menor de empresas mayores como un desarrollo estabilizador que recompensaba el éxito y permitía una mayor inversión productiva. Al final, la creación de los Estados Unidos como una potencia económica importante fue posible gracias a fundiciones de acero gigantescas, sistemas ferroviarios integrados y la movilización de enormes reservas energéticas mediante empresas como la Standard Oil.

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