Paul Lachine

نصيحة روزفلت في التعامل مع بنوك أميركا العملاقة؟

واشنطن العاصمة ـ قبل ما يزيد قليلاً على المائة عام، قادت الولايات المتحدة العالم نحو إعادة النظر في كيفية عمل الشركات التجارية الكبرى ـ ومتى ينبغي تقييد قوة مثل هذه الشركات. وحين نسترجع الماضي الآن فسوف يتبين لنا أن التشريع الفاصل ـ ليس فقط في الولايات المتحدة، بل وعلى المستوى الدولي أيضاً ـ كان قانون شيرمان لمكافحة الاحتكار لعام 1890.

والواقع أن مشروع قانون دود-فرانك للإصلاح المالي، والذي يوشك مجلس الشيوخ الأميركي على إقراره، يفعل بالعمل المصرفي أمراً مماثلاً ـ طال انتظاره.

قبل عام 1890 كانت الشركات الضخمة تعتبر على نطاق واسع كيانات أكثر كفاءة وأكثر حداثة عموماً من الشركات الصغيرة. ولقد رأي أغلب الناس في دمج الشركات الأصغر حجماً في عدد أقل من الشركات الضخمة تطوراً يعزز الاستقرار ويكافئ النجاح ويسمح بالمزيد من الاستثمار المنتج. بيد أن ظهور أميركا باعتبارها قوة اقتصادية عظمى لم يصبح ممكناً إلا بفضل مصانع الصلب العملاقة، وشبكات السكك الحديدية المتكاملة، وحشد احتياطيات هائلة من الطاقة من خلال مشاريع مثل "ستاندرد أويل".

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