Un nuevo Estado como solución para Israel y Palestina

PRINCETON – Imaginemos una solución de dos Estados en Israel y Palestina en la que los palestinos tendrían el derecho de retorno; los israelíes se establecerían dondequiera que compraran tierra en Cisjordania; y Jerusalén no tendría que ser dividido. Esta no es una visión fantasiosa sino una reinvención absolutamente creativa de la condición de Estado del siglo XXI. Además, la visita del presidente estadounidense Barack Obama a Israel es una oportunidad para explorar realmente las nuevas reflexiones.

Desde que Bill Clinton casi lograra en 2000 que se negociara un acuerdo amplio, el mantra entre los partidarios del proceso de paz israelí-palestino ha sido que si bien existe una solución, no hay líderes israelíes y palestinos que tengan la voluntad de alcanzarla. La solución es una versión del acuerdo que Clinton vislumbró: dos Estados soberanos basados en las fronteras de 1967 con intercambios de tierras negociados que reflejaran los patrones de asentamiento existentes. El acuerdo incluiría un corredor que conectaría Gaza y Cisjordania; un Jerusalén dividido con acceso garantizado a todos a los sitios religiosos; la renuncia de los palestinos al derecho de retorno; la voluntad de Israel de desmantelar los asentamientos fuera de las fronteras acordadas; y el reconocimiento de los dos Estados en Medio Oriente.

Pero supongamos que la razón por la que los palestinos e israelíes no quieren concluir un acuerdo de esa naturaleza tiene que ver con el hecho de que la solución en sí es nacionalmente  intolerable en ambos lados. Imaginemos que mientras una versión de este acuerdo es la única opción disponible, la escalofriante expansión física del Estado israelí y la expansión demográfica de los árabes israelíes seguirán socavando sus fundamentos. Pese a todas las advertencias urgentes de que la ventana de oportunidad para una solución de dos Estados se está cerrando rápidamente (o ya se cerró), la solución en sí es el problema.

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