Eine neue Heilige Allianz?

LONDON – Das kürzlich stattgefundene Treffen des „Hüters der Heiligen Stätten“, König Abdullah von Saudi-Arabien, mit Papst Benedict XVI. im Vatikan war ein bahnbrechendes Ereignis – insbesondere, da es in eine Zeit fällt, in der radikale Muslime lautstark die Rolle der „Kreuzfahrer“ in der Politik des Nahen Ostens verdammen. Es war außerdem das bisher eindeutigste Anzeichen einer sich herausbildenden „Heiligen Allianz“ unter den konservativen Führern dieser Welt. Zielpublikum dieses Treffens zwischen muslimischem König und römisch-katholischem Pontifex nämlich waren in erster Linie nicht ihre Anhänger, sondern ein weiterer konservativer Führer, Präsident George W. Bush.

Die erste „Heilige Allianz“ war eine Schöpfung des Österreichers Fürst Metternich nach den napoleonischen Kriegen. Sie war ein Versuch, durch eine Koalition von Siegern, die gemeinsame Werte hochhielten, den Frieden (und die Sicherheit des relativ schwachen österreichischen Kaiserreichs) zu wahren.

Metternichs „Heilige Allianz“ war die einzige originäre politische Idee, die aus der Niederlage Napoleons hervorging. Hinter ihrem exaltierten Namen verbarg sich eine Innovation von großer diplomatischer Bedeutung: die Einführung eines Elements kalkulierter moralischer Zurückhaltung in die internationalen Beziehungen. Das Eigeninteresse der Allianzmitglieder – Österreich, Preußen und Russland – am Überleben ihrer heimischen Institutionen führte jedes von ihnen dazu, Konflikte zu vermeiden, die sie in der Vergangenheit ganz selbstverständlich verfolgt hätten.

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