笼罩太阳能的保护主义阴影

坎布里奇——世界最大的反倾销争端终于于7月底达成和解,中国同意以约定的最低价格向欧盟出口太阳能电池板。最终的解决方案比曾经迫在眉睫的结果缓和了许多:如果欧盟委员会判定占欧洲市场80%份额的中国“倾销”罪名成立,欧盟对中国太阳能电池板的关税将升至47.6%。但和解对于消费者和环境而言都是不好的结果。

中国和欧盟的争端与中美争端非常相似。去年秋天,在美国商务部认定中国向美国市场“倾销”(一般定义为以低于成本价销售)罪名成立后,美国对从中国进口的太阳能电池板征收24-36%的关税。中国方面则指出美国对华倾销生产太阳能电池板的关键材料多晶硅,并对美进口产品加征超过50%的报复性关税。

太阳能电池板争端看似狭隘深奥,但却直指全球化长期争论的核心议题。反全球化人士最有力的论据是即使自由贸易从总体上有利于经济增长,但也可能破坏环保等重要公共利益。根据著名的“向下竞争”假说,对国际贸易开放的国家被认为实施了相对宽松的环保法规。

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