Berlínský konsenzus?

HONGKONG – Nedávná cesta do Berlína ve mně vyvolala vzpomínky na dřívější návštěvu v létě 1967, kdy jsem jako chudý student žasl nad Zdí, která měla ještě další dvě desítky let rozdělovat a pustošit celou společnost. Dnešní Berlín, živý a omlazený, obrozený pilnou prací německého lidu a jeho obětí ve prospěch sjednocení země, byl příhodným prostředím pro konferenci Institutu pro nové ekonomické myšlení (INET), kvůli níž jsem tam přicestoval.

Na konferenci na téma „Ztracené paradigma“ se sešlo přes 300 ekonomů, politologů, systémových analytiků a ekologů, aby revidovali ekonomickou a politickou teorii s ohledem na výzvy a nejistoty, jež přináší narůstající nerovnost, zvyšující se nezaměstnanost, globální finanční zmatek a změna klimatu. Téměř všichni se shodli, že staré paradigma neoklasické ekonomie je rozvrácené, leč nebyla shoda v tom, co by jej mohlo nahradit.

Laureát Nobelovy ceny Amartya Sen přičetl evropskou krizi čtyřem selháním – politickému, ekonomickému, sociálnímu a intelektuálnímu. Globální finanční krize, která začala v roce 2007 jako krize podřadných hypoték v USA a rozšířila se do evropské krize suverénního dluhu (a bank), přinesla otázky, na něž nedokážeme odpovědět, vinou nadměrné specializace a fragmentace znalostí. Nikdo však nepopírá, že se svět příliš zkomplikoval na jednoduchou všezahrnující teorii, která by vysvětlovala spletité ekonomické, technologické, demografické a environmentální posuny.

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