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铭记1989年奇迹

斯德哥尔摩—这个月是欧洲——以及整个人类文明——开始奇迹般转型三十周年。这一转型已经铭刻在世界记忆中。1989年夏天,苏联已经行将就木。唯一的问题是共产主义的崩溃会以和平方式出现,还是陷入暴力和灾难的爆发。

在苏联本身内部,戈尔巴乔夫的改革和开放政策开启了巨变的大门,但戈尔巴乔夫仍然相信,共产主义制度能够通过改革挽救。与此同时,在苏联帝国的外围,许多人担心即将到来的制度崩溃会让红军坦克重新出现在街道和广场上。1953年柏林、1956年布达佩斯和1968年布拉格的苏联镇压记忆犹新,二战前的波罗的海国家镇压亦然。

生于恐怖的苏联通过暴政和秘密警察维持。没人知道,如果不再次诉诸野蛮暴力,它能不能存活。这是令欧洲无比紧张的时刻。

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