The media, legislators, and other organizations often raise concerns about human-rights violations and ethical breaches in clinical research. Such cases are legion. Human subjects are allowed to be bitten by 100 mosquitoes that could carry malaria in a study in Brazil. A French doctor performs a face transplant without the benefit of the usual research that would accompany such a high-risk procedure. An 18-year-old subject in a gene therapy trial dies, with numerous lapses in the clinical trial noted after his death.
Just months ago, a clinical trial in London that saw the first use of a drug in humans resulted in six healthy subjects becoming violently ill. Two of the volunteers nearly died. The volunteers were paid several thousands of dollars to participate in the trial.