George Santayana, the Spanish-American poet and philosopher, once warned that "Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it." This is especially true in the field of bridge building, where over the past 150 years dramatic failures have occurred at surprisingly regular intervals.
In 1847, the first major structural failure on Britain's expanding railway network occurred at Chester, England. The Dee Bridge, whose cast- and wrought-iron design followed common practice for the period, collapsed under a passing train, killing everyone aboard. Subsequent investigation revealed that the structure, the longest of its kind, simply pushed the limits of railroad-bridge engineering too far.