Digitized sound wave Digitized sound wave/Pixabay

The Year Ahead 2016

抓住数字浪潮

纽约—技术变化对公司来说永远是一种挑战。但是,我们在2015年再一次看到,此前从未如今次那样发生得如此迅速,规模如此巨大。创新席卷了从重工业到服务业的几乎每一个行业,正在改变竞争局面,最先进的公司——而不是最大最老牌的公司——成为佼佼者。

对老牌公司来说,被取代的威胁是实实在在的。标普500成分公司的平均上榜时间从1935年的90年下降到今天的不到18年。破坏性新“选手”,比如颠覆出租车行业的Uber,是难缠的竞争者,常常通过向消费者更多让利撬动市场份额。这是竞争加剧的大趋势的一部分,根据麦肯锡全球研究所的最新研究,它可能在十年之内将全球税后利润占全球GDP的比重从今天的近10%拉低到7.9%。

技术对竞争的影响主要来自数字平台和网络效应的力量。新数字平台让边际成本(新生产一单位产品或服务的成本)下降到几乎为零。比如,增加一位谷歌地图用户的成本可以忽略不计,因为这项服务依靠已经储存在用户手机中的GPS方位数据。这让谷歌能以令人难以置信的速度扩大规模,然后利用这一规模(以及拥有单一平台的便利)渗透到相邻领域,比如音乐(谷歌市场)、支付(谷歌钱包)和文字处理(谷歌文档)。通过这种方式,所有企业都可以迅速崛起挑战看似无关行业的老牌选手。

To continue reading, please enter your email or subscribe to On Point.

To access On Point, log in or register now now and read two On Point articles for free. For unlimited access to the unrivaled analysis of On Point, subscribe now.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/lxXI6OW/zh;
  1. Eton boys with poor boys ullstein bild/Getty Images

    Inequality and the Coming Storm

    Global Bookmark: 

    • In recent decades, the wealth gap between a narrow upper class and the rest of the human population has become a gaping chasm, with far-reaching implications for most countries around the world. 

    • Rising inequality may be the greatest economic challenge of our time, but it’s not the first time human civilization has faced it.
  2. Adam Michnik Gallo Images/Getty Images

    Europe’s New Eastern Question

    interviews

    Insider Interview

    • With right-wing populists ascendant in Poland and Hungary, and gaining ground elsewhere in the European Union, politics in some parts of the West looks increasingly like politics in Russia.

    • Sławomir Sierakowski, Director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Warsaw interviews Adam Michnik, one of the intellectual architects of Solidarity and of the transition from communism in Central Europe, on Europe's illiberal turn.