Donald Trump and Sarah Palin Andrew Dallos/Flickr

The Year Ahead 2016

¿El fascismo está de regreso?

NUEVA YORK – En 2015, el término “fascismo” se convirtió una vez más en el epíteto político de más alto octanaje de uso general. Por supuesto, la tentación de aplicar el rótulo de fascismo es casi irresistible cuando nos enfrentamos a un lenguaje y a un comportamiento que se asemejan superficialmente a los de Hitler y Mussolini. En este momento, se está aplicando profusamente a casos tan dispares como Donald Trump, el Tea Party, el Frente Nacional en Francia y los asesinos islamistas radicales. Pero, si bien la tentación de calificar de “fascistas” a todos estos actores resulta entendible, deberíamos evitarlo.

En su creación en los años 1920 (primero en Italia y luego en Alemania), el fascismo era una reacción violenta contra un exceso percibido de individualismo. Mussolini y Hitler sostenían que Italia era menospreciada y Alemania fue derrotada en la Primera Guerra Mundial porque la democracia y el individualismo habían minado su unidad y voluntad nacional.

De modo que los dos líderes vistieron a sus seguidores con uniforme e intentaron regimentar sus pensamientos y acciones. Una vez en el poder, pretendieron extender la dictadura a cada rincón de la vida. Inclusive el deporte, en el régimen de Mussolini, tenía que ser organizado y supervisado por la agencia estatal llamada il Dopolavoro.

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