Donald Trump and Sarah Palin Andrew Dallos/Flickr

The Year Ahead 2016

法西斯归来?

纽约—2015年,“法西斯”再次成为使用率最高的政治词汇。当然,当我们面临着看上去与希特勒和墨索里尼有几分相似的言语和行径时,几乎总是不自觉地会贴上法西斯的标签。此时此刻,这一标签被广泛贴在了唐纳德·特朗普、茶党、法国国民阵线(National Front)和极端伊斯兰凶手身上。但是,尽管不难理解为何要将这些人称为“法西斯”,仍应该抵制这样使用。

法西斯一词产生于20世纪20年代(先是在意大利,然后在德国),是一种针对过度个人主义感觉的暴力反应。墨索里尼说,意大利在一战中遭到蔑视;希特勒说,德国在一战中战败;之所以遭到蔑视和战败原因在于民主和个人主义削弱了民族团结和意志。

因此,这两位领袖让追随者穿上制服,试图将他们的思想和行动集团化。掌权后,他们试图将独裁扩展到生活的每一个角落。在墨索里尼统治下,就连体育也必须在一个叫作il Dopolavoro的国家机构的组织和监督下进行。

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