¿Zoellick al rescate?

¿Será capaz Robert Zoellick, el recién nombrado Presidente del Banco Mundial, de hacer volver a la organización a su curso normal después de la desastrosamente fallida presidencia de Paul Wolfowitz? Aunque difícilmente es una estrella refulgente de la categoría de Bob Rubin, sin duda aporta algunos atributos positivos al cargo.

En primer lugar, como actor clave en hacer que China se integrara a la Organización Mundial de Comercio, Zoellick es un internacionalista probado en una administración estadounidense donde a veces los internacionalistas han parecido una especie en peligro. Segundo, es un firme partidario del poder de los mercados y del libre comercio, que claramente han hecho más por paliar la pobreza en el último medio siglo que cualquier programa de ayuda. Tercero, parece haber sido un constante soporte tras bambalinas para el Banco, mientras que muchos de sus colegas de la administración Bush estarían felices de verlo cerrar sus puertas y convertir sus oficinas centrales en Washington en oficinas y condominios privados. De modo que probablemente tenga una visión constructiva sobre el futuro del Banco.

Sin embargo, no carece de debilidades. Antes que todo, su nombramiento prolonga la vergonzosamente añeja práctica de siempre poner a un estadounidense en el cargo. Teniendo en cuenta la incansable prédica del Banco elogiando los méritos del buen gobierno, esta falta de adopción de principios democráticos socava su propia legitimidad. El argumento de que el Banco Mundial necesita un presidente de nacionalidad estadounidense para asegurar que Estados Unidos siga donándole dinero es ridículo. El coste anual de la contribución de EE. UU. al Banco Mundial, incluso tomando en cuenta las garantías de préstamos extracontables, es relativamente pequeño. Varios países en desarrollo, como China, India o Brasil, fácilmente podrían aumentar su aporte si Estados Unidos cometiese la tontería de eliminar el suyo.

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